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Revolutionizing Surgery: How AI and Robotics are Transforming the Operating Room
Revolutionizing Surgery: How AI and Robotics are Transforming the Operating Room

Artificial intelligence and robotics are rapidly transforming the world of surgery, making
procedures safer, more precise, and less invasive than ever before. Surgery has come a long
way since the days of surgical pioneers hundreds of years ago, but perhaps the biggest leap
forward in recent years has been the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. These
technologies are transforming the way surgeries are performed, with an opportunity for faster,
safer, and more precise surgeries than ever before.


Disclosure from Dr. Service: What you just read (and the rest of this article) was initially written
by AI: ChatGPT. I have made some edits, added additional insight directly from me, and
changed the flow of this article. I used ChatGPT because 1. I wanted to try it out! 2. because so
much of what we hear on the news is different than when we experience the actual thing and 3.
to demonstrate what AI can do. Artificial intelligence is a valuable tool that is available for a
myriad of use cases by physicians to ultimately help patients get better. We need to learn how
think about the future of medicine differently than how we did even just a few years ago. My
main goal was in using AI as a creator for the framework of this article was to demonstrate that
AI is and will be an important part of medical education and healthcare moving forward.

One of the most significant advances in this field is the development of surgical robots, which
are controlled by a surgeon and offer several advantages over traditional surgical techniques. In
recent years, the use of robots in surgery has become increasingly common. These robots are
designed to be operated by a surgeon and provide a level of precision that would be difficult or
impossible to achieve with human hands alone. With robotic surgery, the surgeon controls the
robot's arms, which are equipped with tiny instruments that can make precise movements with
greater flexibility and dexterity than human hands.

For one, robotic surgery allows for greater precision and accuracy, with the robot's arms able to
make movements that are too small or too difficult for a human hand to achieve. Additionally,
robotic surgery can be less invasive, with smaller incisions leading to reduced scarring, faster
recovery times, and fewer complications. Additionally, when considering long term precision, the
robotic procedures will be able to maintain enhanced consistency over time by eliminating
muscular fatigue and other physiological factors such as being hungry or thirsty. Robotics will
help surgeons be more consistent and more accurate over time.

An important question to ask: Does robotic surgery help surgeons do better surgeries? In some
fields like orthopedic surgery, robotic total and partial knee replacements have greatly increased
in popularity but medical research suggests that there is not a difference between traditional and
robotic surgery outcomes for knee replacements. This lack of a difference could be due to a
number of reasons. Firstly, the surgeons writing the journal articles may have above average
skill that limits the benefits of robotic surgery. Two, the difference in implant position between
robotic surgery and traditional surgery may be statistically significant but have limited difference
according to patient perception. Lastly, the robotic technologies are early in the process of
innovation and growth compared to other industries. Further refinements to instruments and
software will further enhance the value of robotic procedures for the patient first, but also for the

Another major innovation in surgical technology is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to assist
with decision-making. Machine learning algorithms can analyze vast amounts of patient data,
including medical records and imaging studies, to help guide surgeons in their treatment
decisions. This can help reduce the risk of errors and improve outcomes, particularly in complex
surgical cases.

AI has many potential applications in surgery. For example, it can be used to analyze medical
images and help doctors make more accurate diagnoses, or to help guide surgical decision
making. At this time, that type of use case would likely be employed before surgery during pre-
surgery planning. In the future, with new models and "smart" surgical instruments, AI could help
surgeons make decisions actively to help improve patient outcomes. In some cases, AI
algorithms can predict which patients are at highest risk of complications after surgery, allowing
doctors to take preventative measures.

Robotics, on the other hand, have already had a significant impact on surgery. Surgical robots
can perform complex procedures with greater precision than human hands, and they can work
for longer periods of time without getting tired or making mistakes. This can lead to better
outcomes for patients, with less pain, shorter hospital stays, and faster recoveries.

However, given the long history of medicine, it's worth noting that the use of AI and robotics in
surgery is very new, and there are some concerns about their safety and reliability for each
application. It's important to carefully evaluate each new technology before incorporating it into
clinical practice, and to continue monitoring its performance over time.

Overall, though, the potential benefits of AI and robotics in surgery are significant, and they are
likely to play an increasingly important role in the operating room in the years to come.

Cody C. Green, MD

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